Monday, 6 May 2013

Context of Practise Essay

Could it be argued that fine art ought to be assigned more 'value' than more popular forms of Visual Communication?

The word ‘value’ is described as something which explains how much, an object, a person, or anything is worth, whether is be in a material way such as money, or whether its describing the importance of something. Graphic design is an important form of visual communication, therefore this essay will be looking at the relationship between fine art and graphic design, it will suggest reasons why fine art is seen to have a higher value than graphic design, and how it is culturally, more significant. Looking at the way in which people see fine art in comparison to the way they look at graphic design and what they take from that. Is graphic design a form of art? This is a popular question, even though they are both seen as a means of communication, does that make them the same thing? Throughout this essay, these questions will be answered and investigating the similarities and differences between art and design.

Graphic design is seen to have less value than Fine Art. When looking at the monetary worth of a piece of fine art in comparison to a piece of graphic design, this statement is true as art is seen as one of a kind, not reproducible, therefore it will go on sale for a lot of money, whereas graphic design is mass produced and is disposable, therefore has very little monetary worth. Although when looking at the importance of a piece of art or design, it could be argued that graphic design has more importance as it has a function, and is serving a purpose. Malcolm Barnard supports this idea as he says, ‘The argument is that graphic design is there to perform various jobs or functions, but art has no function.’ (Barnard, 2005: 172) With this Malcolm Barnard shows that there is an argument that Graphic design should have more value, as art has little importance as it has no function therefore doesn’t achieve anything. Which brings you back to question, why should fine art have such a high value, when graphic design has no value at all?
In Malcolm Barnard’s book, Graphic Design as Communication, he identifies the areas in which art and design are different, why design is not an art, and what people are confusing between the two. He states that art and design is not the same thing, although not for the reasons people would usually think. The idea that graphic design differs from art because art is being creative and has no limits, whereas graphic design is problem solving, its serving a purpose. Malcolm Barnard shows that this is just a theory, which he believes is wrong, as he states, ‘problem solving is itself an example of creative activity. If this is the case, then it can be claimed that graphic design is not different from art in that they are both creative.’ (Barnard, 2005:170). This quote argues that it’s not as simple as that they are both creative, therefore are the same thing. ‘A work of art stems from a view or opinion or feeling that the artist holds within him or herself. They create the art to share that feeling with others, to allow the viewers to relate to it, learn from it or be inspired by it… By contrast, when a designer sets out to create a new piece, they almost always have a fixed starting point, whether a message, an image, an idea or an action. The designer’s job isn’t to invent something new, but to communicate something that already exists, for a purpose.’ (Anon, 2009).  This quote is by Webdesingerdepot, and it is saying that is not just black an white, which means the idea that, art and design are the same because they are both creative, can be argued that they are creative in different ways. As graphic design is very limited, this is because they have a starting point and a purpose, and something that they have been briefed to communicate. Therefore the designer is able to be creative in respects to these compulsory points to start and finish, which some people suggest that having so many restrictions, disables the creativity and forces structure and a process to designing. Artists on the other hand, have as much freedom as they want, they do not work from briefs, they work from the emotions that they are having at the time, and show them through a piece of art. This would mean that art and design may have similar aspects to them, but this doesn’t mean that they are the same thing, as they differ from each other in many ways. Continuing to argue the point that art and design are similar in the way that they are both creative, Malcolm Barnard shows that art also has creative limits, and is also meeting clients needs like graphic designers do. ‘some point at which the “artist’s” freedom and expressivity is inevitable compromised by economics: what is produced has, eventually, to be marketable in order for the “artist” to be able to live. Even in the limit cases, there is something like a client and the “artist” is constrained to produce something that ‘end-user’ will want to buy’ (Barnard, 2005:165). Limiting artist’s freedom shows that art and design both follow the same restraints when it comes to working for clients, proving that art and design don’t differ from each of in this respect, therefore should have the same value.
Another way to show the differences between art and design is by looking at the audience who purchase or are effected by the pieces of work, and looking at the clientele that the work attracts. A piece of fine art is usually bought by someone of the elite, someone who has a lot of disposable income, or someone who wants to look like they have a lot of disposable income. Buying a piece of art can be for many reasons like, being effected by the way you interpret a piece of art, or wanting to shows people how much money you have, and how cultural you are, some people even buy a piece of art as an investment. Art is not communicating a message as much as it is communicating a feeling or emotion, the audience may not see the same emotion that the artist has, but they will have their own feelings about the work, this is what is unique about fine art, it effects people in different ways depending on how they are feeling. Design on the other hand isn’t necessarily bought, it can be bought but it is most commonly known for communicating a message, could be about a product, place or function, it could try and make you purchase something, or do something. Graphic design is communicating a certain message, and it is not for the audience to interpret like fine art is. Therefore what art and design are trying to make you do or make you see are completely different things, this quote supports this. ‘art and design … are interpreted by their respective audiences Art connects with people in different ways, because it’s interpreted differently. Design is the very opposite. Many will say that if a design can be “interpreted” at all, it has failed in its purpose. The fundamental purpose of design is to communicate a message and motivate the viewer to do something.’ (Anon, 2009). Malcolm Barnard agrees, ‘graphic design is a means of communication.’ (Barnard, 2005:18) and that it cannot be interpreted. Although he does believe that design is just as culturally significant as art if not sometimes it’s more. ‘Many examples of graphic design, they say, are “preserved and studied”, just as art is preserved and studied, and it therefore be considered as being culturally significant as art… some graphic design products can be more artistic than art in some respects.’ (Barnard, (2005:166). Barnard is arguing that although art is known as having more cultural significance than graphic design, he doesn’t believe that it should. ‘posters, packaging and logos on this account can be more expressive of an age or a culture than oil paintings and sculptures.’ (Barnard, 2005:166). Having a piece of graphic design in your house should have just as much value as having a piece of fine art in your house, whether this is in terms of monetary value or personal value.

‘Traditionally, the main differences between a graphic designer and an artist is that a graphic designer requires a brief and needs to be given content to work with. Artists, on the other hand, write their own briefs and create their own content.’ (Shaughnessy, 2009:21) This is seen as one of the main reasons why art and design are so far about when it comes to what they do and how they work, when actually Malcolm Barnard argues that this is another mistake, and that art and design are different but not for this reason. ‘not all those whom one might want to call artists are experimental risk-taking loners who revel in their creative freedom; some are and have been bound by strict contractual obligations to produce exactly what they are told to produce.’ (Barnard, 2005:165) examples of this are Damien Hirst, Picasso, Tracey Emin. These ‘artists’ all worked to briefs at one point, or did their work, not for the idea of showing emotion and trying to inspire and effect people’s lives, but purely just trying to make money, and doing what people have asked them to do to make some money. For example Picasso was commissioned to provide illustrations for the town Nice and De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd, this was commissioned by advertising agencies, and he was told what he needed to illustrate, therefore following a brief to make money. This can be inferred that not all ‘artists’ are free to express whatever they want to, a lot of them have to work for briefs to earn some money so they can live and pay for their materials and studio space.  Fine art is seen to have more value because of its lack of rules and regulations, they are not ‘working for the man’ they are working to express, where as graphic designers have sold out and they are doing designs to earn a living as well as communicating a message. Therefore as Malcolm Barnard shows that this is false and artists need to earn a living to survive too, they should have the same value as both art and design influence peoples lives in different ways, they both do it for the same reasons. Craig Elimeliah suggests ‘most design projects have a detailed set of instructions and most design is based on current trends and influences.  An artist, on the other hand, could never be given any specific instructions in creating a new chaotic and unique masterpiece because his emotions and soul is dictating the movement of his hands and the impulses for the usage of the medium.  No art director is going to yell at an artist for producing something completely unique because that is what makes an artist an artist and not a designer.’ (Elimeliah, 2006) Craig Elimeliah argues the idea that maybe if these ‘artists’ are following a brief and being told what to do they are not an artist at all, that they are a designer.

Looking at the difference between artist and designers in a different way is by looking at the monetary value and how a piece of fine art only increasing in value after the artist has died, this is because it is irreplaceable, and unique. Whereas if a designer had died, it would be a loss but their work would not change in monetary value, unless their work was used in exhibitions, this is because the work can be reproduced as it can be reprinted and replaced. Malcolm Barnard states that the difference between art and design is ‘Aura’ he says, ‘some works of art possess “aura” and others, mechanically reproduced works (such as graphic design), do not. Aura is the sense of uniqueness and authenticity that is felt before a work of art. Uniqueness, the sense that there is a single work of art’ (Barnard, 2005:175). A good example of this is Van Gogh’s work. Van Gogh is considered as one of the most well known artists in the world, he produced paintings and drawings, each were singularly produced and seen as unique. Van Gogh struggled for years with money, as he only sold one of his paintings when he was alive, the work he produced didn’t make any money, and at the time no one understood his work or what he was doing. He believed that he was outside of society, and didn’t care about money because he was better than that, and after during his mental health issues he killed himself, some people say it was because no one understood him and his work.

Van Gogh had a very good relationship with his brother, they wrote letters to each other all the time, a lot of the letters were Van Gogh asking for money; as he lived off his brothers money as his brother was quite wealthy and well off as he was an art dealer, therefore this shows that he needed money. Van Gogh was commissioned to do work by his uncle, although his uncle didn’t appreciate the work he did, therefore gave him a more specific brief to follow, and he still didn’t use his work. Although his uncle didn’t use his work, Van Gogh still worked to a brief in order to earn some money, he also relied on his brother to provide him with money whilst he was paintings. This shows that Malcolm Barnard’s theory that; some artists follow briefs to be able to live, and survive, and it doesn’t mean that they are not an artist, although it could be argued that they shouldn’t have a higher value than graphic design either. Van Gogh’s work had an aura about it, it is unique and this is the reason why it has such a high monetary value to it. His work increased in how much the paintings were worth after he died as he couldn’t sell a lot of his work when he was alive, but 20 years after he had died, the self portrait (the last self portrait he had ever painted) that he gave to his mother for her birthday (Fig 1), sold in New York for $71.5 million, at the time this was the third most expensive paintings ever sold. Although he produced about 37 self-portraits, they were all one of a kind, they were not reproducible, and this is why they have this aura about them.

Another example of a fine artist, which displays and questions Barnard’s theories, is Damien Hirst. Damien Hirst peaked in 2008, he is also seen as quite a well-known contemporary artist and is seen as a risk taker, who experiments with the abnormal. Damien Hirst’s spot paintings are one of his most widely recognizable works that’s he has produced. He started with two and produced them himself, he then started hiring assistants to do it for him, this meant that he could produce more, which brought him to a total of 300 spot paintings (Fig 2) which were in exhibitions all over the world. It could be argued that as he didn’t physically do the paintings, as he says he can’t draw or paint, and that he showed his assistants how to produce them, almost mechanically, this is seen as something that could be reproduced although he calls himself an artist, by doing this he could be working as a designer. As Barnard suggests that the difference between an artist and a designer is that art possesses aura, whereas design doesn’t, as it can be mass-produced.

Hirst’s work is decreasing in value, his prices are down by 30% and some of his work isn’t even being sold, is this because he is no longer seen as an artist anymore, therefor his work has less value? He doesn’t always physically produce his work, he sometimes just thinks of the ideas for them, which has also been argued to be plagiarism. People have suggested that he has stolen other artist’s work and ideas, for example he had said that he had seen the spin paintings (Fig 3) on blue peter before he had done them, also his friend John LeKay had exhibited animal carcasses long before Damien Hirst had produced and of his animal carcasses (Fig 4), then when people question him about it his response was “F**k ’em all!” ( By Daily Mail Reporter PUBLISHED:| UPDATED:) The work, which Damien Hirst produces, is seen as art as it doesn’t have a specific function or purpose, his work is produced to cause reactions, it is very in your face and it wants to spark emotions from his respective audience. This shows that his work can’t be graphic design, as he is not communicating a message, he is trying to spark and emotion.

To conclude this essay, it has been shown throughout that fine art is seen to have a higher culture and monetary value, and is also more prestigious than graphic design, but this essay has also sown reasons of why it can be argued that people are wrong to think like that. ‘Art cannot be distinguished from graphic design by arguing that meaning in art is ambiguous and difficult but easy and plain in graphic design…meaning is a product of cultural and social values and what is easily understood by one group need not be easily understood by another.’ (Barnard, (2005), Page 163-164) Barnard shows that it art and design mean different things to different people, some people believe that art is amazing and something that should be seen as having a higher value than graphic design, whereas some people would argue that and say that art doesn’t make sense and has no purpose, therefore as graphic design has a function, and can be beautiful at the same time, it should hold a higher value than fine art, whether that be a monetary value or value of importance. Although most people think that it is, this is not a black and white issue, there are grey areas, which can be argued and the audience also needs to be taken into consideration, rather than a blanket opinion. Graphic design and fine art have different values according to different people, therefore suggesting that fine art has a very high value and graphic design has no value is a blanket statement made by one persons opinion.

Fig 1 - Anon. (n.d.), (2002-2013) ‘Van Gogh Gallery’, [Internet], Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January 2013].

 Fig 2 – Anon. (n.d.), (2012), ‘Daptomycin 2010’, [Internet], Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January 2013]

Fig 3 - Webb, P. (2010) ‘Poul Webb Art Blog’, [Internet], Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January 2013].

Fig 4 – Anon. (n.d.), (2012) ‘The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, 1991’, [Internet], Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January]



Ambrose, G & Harris, P. (2009), ‘The Fundamentals of Graphic Design’, Switzerland, AVA Publishing SA.

Anon. (n.d.). (2009), ‘The Difference Between Art and Design’, [Internet], Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January 2013].

Anon. (n.d), (2012), ‘At last, the real shark is exposed: As prices for Damien Hirst’s works plummet, pity the credulous saps who spent fortunes on his tosh’, [Internet], Available from: < > [Accessed 28 January 2013].

Barnard, M. (2005), ‘Graphic Design as Communication’, Oxon, pages 172, 170, 165, 18, 166, 165, 175, 163 & 164, Routledge.

Berger, J. (1972), ‘Ways of Seeing’, London, British Broadcasting Corporation.

Elimeliah, C. (2006), ‘Art Vs. Design’, [Internet], New York, Available from: <> [Accessed 28 January 2013].

Heller, S. (2010), ‘Pop’, New York, Allworth Press.

Lupton, E. & Miller, A. (1999), ‘Design Writing Research’, London, Phaidon Press Limited.

Newark, Q. (2007), ‘What is Graphic Design’, Switzerland, RotaVision SA.

Shaughnessy, A. (2009), ‘Graphic Design; A User’s Manual.’, London, page 21, Laurence King Publishing Ltd.

Context of Practice Publication


 Module Code 

 Module Title
Context of Practice 1



1.  What skills have you developed through this module and how effectively do you think you have applied them?

What I have learnt through this module is to thoroughly research my subject matter, so that I can say I’m an expert on the subject. This makes the design process a lot easier as I found that I knew exactly what I wanted to do with the designs for Cadbury’s after I had researched it thoroughly, as I knew what they had done previously and what they hadn’t done before but is appropriate.

2. What approaches to/methods of design production have you developed and how have they informed your design development process?

The methods which I have used during this module are digital printing, experimenting with different packaging’s, trail and error to see which works and looks best in my designs. I wanted to include screen printing in my methods of production but found that it wasn’t practical for my product, I also ran out of time when it came to it, therefore should have sorted my screens out beforehand.

3. What strengths can you identify in your work and how have/will you capitalise on these?

The strengths which I have gained are using a different method of binding during the design process, also I found that I can move out of my comfort zones when it comes to design work as long as it is appropriate to design in that way.

4. What weaknesses can you identify in your work and how will you address these in the future?

I found that one of my weaknesses throughout this module was my management of time, although I blogged the sessions as and kept up to date with my lecture notes, I found that I left the production of my publication a little bit too late, I underestimated how much time it would take me to make.

5. Identify five things that you will do differently next time and what do you expect to gain from doing these?
Next time I will plan and organised my time better and more efficiently.
I will also experiment with different methods of production, such as screen printing
I will try and experiment with different methods of binding, as although I used something different to what I would usually use, I didn’t look into any others as mine seemed appropriate.
Next time I will be more careful when printing as I had to reprint things many times due to mistake in printing and my error when measuring things.
I will also find different ways to print on coloured paper, as I think my publication would have worked a lot better if I had of printed directly onto the paper instead of cutting and sticking images.

6.How would you grade yourself on the following areas:
(please indicate using an ‘x’) 

5= excellent, 4 = very good, 3 = good, 2 = average, 1 = poor







Quantity of work produced


Quality of work produced


Contribution to the group

The evaluation of your work is an important part of the assessment criteria and represents a percentage of the overall grade. It is essential that you give yourself enough time to complete your written evaluation fully and with appropriate depth and level of self-reflection. If you have any questions relating to the self evaluation process speak to a member of staff as soon as possible.

Sunday, 5 May 2013

A Brief History Of...Research

When I first started to think about what I would do for a brief history of... I thought that I would go back through all of my lecture notes and go through the lectures, so that I can find something I will be interested in, and something I can do my publication about.

Graphic Design, communication for the masses.

I started by finding things which I found interesting, and I picked out these slides from the, graphic design, a communication for the masses lecture, as they are quite shocking advertisements. They are used to get peoples attention with the chock factor, and allows the message to stay in your mind as you remember the shock of the advert. This is why I think I will look into creative advertising.

I then found some creative CD limited edition packaging, as I am very interested in packaging I think that this would be a good starting point to my brief.

Spiritualized's Jason Pierce cut several minutes off his album Ladies and gentlemen we are floating in space just so that the running time looked better typographically on the packaging. His partnership with designer Mark Farrow has produced some of the finest sleeve design of recent times. CR interviewed the pair of them on the eve of the release of Spiritualized's new album.

When looking further into the information about the limited edition CD packaging, I found the meaning behind the pill packaging for a CD, and there was a feature poster on the inside of the album with needles on it, this is following with the theme, songs in A&E.

More designs by Farrow;
Tennant/Lowe The Most Incredible Thing
Packaging for the score to Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe’s ballet 'The Most Incredible Thing' which recently completed its run at Sadler's Wells in London. The ballet is based on a Hans Christian Andersen short story and the cover is based on one of Andersen's paper-cut illustrations.
Another piece of packaging design by Farrow is for this clock. What makes this design so effective is the limited colour and the simplicity of the design, it creates a clean and clear effect with reflects the product inside.

Creative Packaging;
After looking into Farrow's CD packaging designs, I thought that I would look further into creative packaging design.
I found these comical designs for condoms, they are talking logos and slogans that already exist and simply by applying them to a different product or concept it creates humour, therefore would be more appealing to the target audience.
Corinne Pant designed the packaging for these headphones, they are playing with the idea of listening to music, and reading music, by making the headphones look like a note. Having this packaging for the headphones will allow customers to look at a selection and be more drawn towards buying this product over the others because of the packaging design as it is more creative.
I found this bag design by Kempertrautmann, using coloured lace to look like the bags were being held up by shoelaces, having limited colours allows the shoeslaces to stand out more, it also makes the design more creative.
This was designed by Terence Kitching at At Pace design and Communication. The packaging illustrations of the bees on this packaging is what makes it so effective. Although there are a lot of bees, the design is still quite simple, keeping a limited colour palette and a simply structured box for the packaging.
There is a lot of different designs for teabags, this is one designed by Soon Mo Kang, it is using a coat hanger and a rail, and showing the teabags as if that are teashirts. The teabag hangers work well as it allows the hanger to grip the cup so that you are able to dunk the teabag without having to use a spoon.

R.J. Reynolds
Everyone is aware that cigarettes are bad for you, although the packaging it currently has shocking pictures of what cigarettes can do to your body, but still noone takes any notice of them, and they still buy them. This is a more direct root to show people what will happen to them if they smoke, this is a good way to shock people into realising what they are doing to their bodies.
This is playing with the idea that chocolate is like a drug. Having chocolate coming out of a tablets packets is a creative way of making chocolate humorous.

History of coca cola;
After having my crit with my group, I decided that I needed to focus more towards a particular brand or object and do how it has evolved. Therefore I started looking at what I could use and found coca cola, and how much the packaging has developed through time. Although a lot of the packaging is glass and plastic bottles therefore I wont be able to show people how they can create this, and I am also more interested by cartons, therefore I will look for a different brand or object.
Creative CD Packaging;
As my initial piece of creative packaging was for a CD, I thought that I would look further into CD cases and packaging design for them. Which lead me to this website where it showed many different CD packaging, some of which are more creative than others, but they are all very effective. The daily bread packaging is very clever in the way that each CD looks like a slice of toast and the case looks like a toaster, it works in the same way as a toaster too, so when you push the bit on the side the toast (CD) comes out of the top, this makes the CD more appealing as the packaging is creative and effective.

Looking further into different brands I could use for a brief history of, I found that cadburys design on the packaging has changed a lot through the years. I then thought about looking further into the brief history of cadburys and found that the history behind cadburys is very interesting, and I think it will be a very interesting subject to do a brief history of.

A brief history of cadburys;
Cadbury was founded almost 200 years ago. Delve into the fascinating history and you'll find a wealth of interesting facts on subjects including advertising, Cadbury family, past and present products and philanthropy.

1824John Cadbury opened Bull Street shop

In 1824, John Cadbury opened a grocer’s shop at 93 Bull Street, Birmingham in the 1830's. Among other things, he sold cocoa and drinking chocolate, which he prepared himself using a pestle and mortar.

1831John Cadbury opens factory in Crooked Lane

The Cadbury manufacturing business was born in 1831, when John Cadbury decided to start producing on a commercial scale and bought a four-storey warehouse in nearby Crooked Lane.

1842The range expands

By 1842 John Cadbury was selling no less than 16 varieties of drinking chocolate and 11 different cocoas! The earliest preserved price list shows that you could buy drinking chocolate in the form of both pressed cakes and powder.

1847The business moves to Bridge Street

In 1847, the Cadbury brothers' booming business moved into a new, larger factory in Bridge Street in the centre of Birmingham.

1847Fry's Produce the First Chocolate Bar

18th century France produced pastilles (tablets) and bars. But it wasn’t until Bristol company Fry & Son made a ‘chocolate delicieux a manger’ in 1847 that the first bar of chocolate appeared, as we know it today.

A vintage camera
A top hat

1861Richard and George Cadbury take charge

John's health rapidly declined and he finally retired in 1861, handing over complete control of the business to his sons Richard and George. The brothers were just 25 and 21 when they took charge of the business.

1866An innovative processing technique is introduced The turning point for the Cadbury business was the introduction of a new processing technique, resulting in the 1866 launch of 'Cadbury Cocoa Essence', the UK's first unadulterated cocoa.

1875First Milk Chocolate Bar

In 1875, a Swiss manufacturer called Daniel Peter added milk to his recipe to make the first milk chocolate bar.

1875Cadbury makes their first Easter egg

The first Cadbury Easter egg was made in 1875. The earliest eggs were made with dark chocolate and had a smooth, plain surface. They were filled with sugar-coated chocolate drops known as 'dragees’. Later Easter eggs were decorated and had their plain shells enhanced with chocolate piping and marzipan flowers.

1878The Cadbury Brothers are inspired by their vision

When the Bridge Street factory became too small, George Cadbury had a new vision of the future. 'Why should an industrial area be squalid and depressing?’ he asked. His vision was shared by his brother Richard, and they began searching for a very special site for their new factory.

1879Bournville 'The Factory in a Garden' is born

Birmingham architect, George H. Gadd worked closely with George Cadbury to draw up plans for the factory. The first bricks were laid in January 1879 and 16 houses for foremen and senior employees were built on the site.

1893George Cadbury Adds Another 120 Acres to Bournville

George Cadbury had already created some houses for key workers when the Bournville factory was built. Then, in 1893, he bought another 120 acres near the works and started to build houses in line with the ideals of the embryonic Garden City movement.

1895George Cadbury Builds a Further 143 Cottages in Bournville George Cadbury decided not to go for tunnel-backs because it limited the amount of light in the houses. Instead he chose rectangular cottages, each one with a large garden. In 1895, 143 cottages were built on the land he had bought privately, a total of 140 acres.

1897Cadbury Milk Chocolate is Launched

When Cadbury started making Cocoa Essence they had lots of cocoa butter left over, so they used it to make bars of chocolate!
A typewriter
An old Cadbury truck

1900Early outdoor and press advertising

Cadbury produced some of the finest examples of posters and press advertisements during this period. A popular local artist, Cecil Aldin, was commissioned to illustrate for Cadbury. His evocative images featured in early magazine campaigns and graced poster sites all over the country.

1905Cadbury Dairy Milk is Launched

Swiss manufacturers were leading the field in milk chocolate, with much better products than their rivals. In 1904, George Cadbury Jnr was given the challenge to develop a milk chocolate bar with more milk than anything else on the market.

1905First Cadbury logo commissioned

In 1905 William Cadbury commissioned the first Cadbury logo. He was in Paris at the time and chose Georges Auriol to create the design - Auriol also designed the signs for the Paris Metro.

1906Bournville Cocoa is Launched

At first, Cadbury resisted creating an alkalised cocoa (a product made less bitter by adding harmless carbonate of potash) having emphasised the purity of their own cocoa. But, eventually, the company realised that alkalised cocoa was the future and created Bournville Cocoa.

1908Bournville Chocolate is Launched

Bournville chocolate was launched in 1908. It was named after the Bournville factory where it was made, and was originally launched just as a plain chocolate bar.

1914Fry's Turkish Delight is Launched J.S. Fry & Sons merged with Cadbury in 1919 but the name of the bar remains. Fry’s Turkish Delight - rose-flavoured Turkish delight draped in milk chocolate - is a long-standing favourite.

1915Milk Tray is launched

Boxes of chocolates had been produced at Cadbury since the 1860s. But they were expensive, sold in small quantities and would only have been bought for very special occasions. Milk Tray was different: a chocolate assortment, affordable enough to be an everyday treat.

1919Cadbury purchases Fry's

Cadbury bought Frys in 1919 and the company grew, producing delicous chocolate on a grand scale, so it could be enjoyed by everyone.

A bi-plane
An old telephone

1920Cadbury Dairy Milk goes purple

Cadbury Dairy Milk started out in pale mauve with red script, in a continental style 'parcel wrap’ at its launch in 1905. The full Dairy Milk range became purple and gold in 1920.

1920Flake is Launched

The 'crumbliest flakiest chocolate’ was first developed in 1920. A canny Cadbury employee noticed that, when the excess from chocolate moulds was drained off, it fell in a stream and created flaky, folded chocolate.

1921Cadbury script logo first appears

The Cadbury script logo, based on the signature of William Cadbury, appeared first on the transport fleet in 1921. It was quite fussy to start with and has been simplified over the years. It wasn’t until 1952 that it was used across major brands.

1928The 'Glass and a Half' symbol is introduced

It was originally used in 1928 on press and posters, but since then it’s been in TV ads and on wrapper designs, where you can still see it to this day. First of all it was just on Cadbury Dairy Milk, but it’s become the face of the company in recent years.

1928Investment Begins in Cadbury Dairy Milk Ads

A huge success from day one, Cadbury Dairy Milk first hit the shelves in 1905. But surprisingly, little money was put into advertising it until 1928.

1929Crunchie is Launched

A Fry’s product, Crunchie was launched to rival an Australian bar called the Violet Crumble, which first appeared in 1913.

1938Cadbury Roses are Launched

Cadbury Roses were introduced to compete in the twist wrapped assortment market. Early designs incorporated a sampler or embroidery rose design which was later replaced by a simpler rose.

1939King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visit Bournville

Bournville welcomes King George VI and Queen Elizabeth on a tour that formed part of the programme of their visit to Birmingham on March 1st 1939. 10,000 employees lined the route to welcome the King and Queen.

1939Second World War Begins

During the War, rationing was enforced and raw materials were in short supply so it was a question of making do and concentrating on those products they were still able to produce.

An old radio
A slinky toy

1945Post War Expansion

Once the war ended, the company worked hard to restore business as usual. In due course of time, its efforts were rewarded and sales climbed.

1947Milk Tray Bar is Launched

Eight Milk Tray Chocolates, in a bar. Imagine a box of Milk Tray Chocolates. Now imagine picking eight of the most popular chocolates – keeping their distinctive shapes – and putting them in a bar!

1948Fudge is Launched

Launched in 1948, Fudge is most famous for its 1980s and early 1990s advertising jingle 'A finger of fudge is just enough to give your kids a treat’. The words were new, but the tune was borrowed and based on a traditional English folk song, 'The Lincolnshire Poacher’.

1955First Cadbury TV advert

Cadbury’s ad for drinking chocolate was one of 24 that were shown on ITV’s launch night. The advert was based on the popular panel game 'Twenty Questions'.

1957The Making of a 50s Cadbury TV advert

Ever wondered how an early TV ad was made? We found this footage in the Cadbury archive showing the making of an early Roses TV ad.

1958Lucky Numbers Are Launched

In 1958 Cadbury launched a new assortment of chewy sweets, some covered in chocolate and some not. These Lucky Numbers each had an individual number on the wrapper, hence the name. The brand was retired in 1968.

1960Skippy is Launched

The milk chocolate bar with a caramel and wafer centre launched in 1960, with the slogan ‘It’s got a crunch in the biscuit and a munch in the middle’. A classic 1960s TV ad for Skippy shows a swinging London couple getting off their scooter and going into a trendy coffee bar to pick up their Skippys.
Vintage glasses from the 50s
A tiny purple car

1967Aztec Bar is Launched

Made of milk chocolate, nougatine and caramel, the Aztec made a big impact on its launch in 1967.

1967Toffee Buttons Are Launched

A button-shaped chocolate sweet with toffee inside. Launched in 1967 and withdrawn in 1971. The packs featured brightly coloured cowboys and Indians.

1969Cadbury Merges With Schweppes

The merger happened after the new Cadbury Chairman, Adrian Cadbury, was approached by his opposite number, Lord Watkinson.

A colour television
Platform heels

1970A decade of sales growth

Many Cadbury brands - Flake, Cadbury Dairy Milk, Whole Nut and Fruit and Nut - saw vast increases in sales in the 1970s, partially due to hugely successful and memorable TV advertising campaigns.

1970Curly Wurly is Launched Curly Wurly, made of chewy caramel covered in milk chocolate, first appeared in 1970.

1970Old Jamaica is Launched

Old Jamaica was a special blend of milk and plain chocolate with rum flavoured raisins. This Cadbury Classic Selection bar is no longer made for the UK market, but you can still stock up on Old Jamaica if you look around on the Internet.

1971Creme Egg is Launched

Cream-filled eggs first appeared back in 1923. But the Cadbury Creme Egg we know and love today didn’t hit the shelves until 1971.

1981Wispa is Launched

Launched nationally in 1983 after a trial run in the North East of England, Wispa was available throughout the 1980s and 1990s and was re-born in 2007.

1985Boost Coconut is Launched

Milk chocolate covered bar with a toasted coconut and caramel centre. A variant of the mighty Boost, this coconut flavour was discontinued in 1994.

1987Twirl is Launched

Twirl was launched in the UK in 1987. The brand was developed by the Cadbury Ireland business using Flake technology. It was originally launched in Ireland in 1985 as a single finger product and became a two-finger product on its UK launch.

1989Inspirations Are Launched

Textured fruit flavoured centres covered in milk, white and dark chocolate. Inspirations launched in 1989, in a carton with sliding drawers. Initially highly successful, it was retired in 1998.
A cassette tape
A MiniDisc and a CD

1990Cadbury World Opens

Factory tours had always been popular but it was impossible to run a factory smoothly if it had thousands of visitors. In 1988 Cadbury began planning a visitor attraction to take the place of the factory tours - Cadbury World.

1996Cadbury Fuse is Launched

Fuse exploded into the UK marketplace on ‘Fuesday’ 24th September 1996. It was a chocolate bar with a difference – instead of having a milk chocolate coating on the outside, the yummy ingredients were suspended right the way through it.

A digital camera

2003Cadbury Schweppes Buys Adams and Becomes the World's Leading Confectionery Company

Cadbury bought the world’s number 2 gum manufacturer, Adams, in 2003 and achieved its aim of leading the market.

2007The Gorilla Advert Premiers

'Gorilla’ showed the eponymous primate enthusiastically playing the drums on the Phil Collins record 'In the Air Tonight’. It proved hugely popular and cleaned up at advertising awards ceremonies, winning many prizes including the prestigious Grand Prix Lion at Cannes in 2008.

2008Cadbury and Schweppes Demerge

The two companies demerged to allow each to concentrate on its area of expertise.

2008Cadbury Cocoa Partnership Launched

In January 2008, Cadbury launched the Cadbury Cocoa Partnership. £45 million was put aside to put into cocoa farms in Ghana, India, Indonesia and the Caribbean over a decade.

2009Cadbury Dairy Milk Becomes Fairtrade

The move to Fairtrade has the impact of tripling the sales for cocoa farmers in Ghana under Fairtrade terms, both increasing Fairtrade cocoa sales for existing certified farming groups, as well as opening up new opportunities for thousands more farmers to benefit from the Fairtrade system.

2010Cadbury becomes part of Kraft Foods

Cadbury became part of Kraft Foods family on the 2nd of February 2010.

2012Chocolate centre of excellence opens in Bournville

A new global research and devlopment centre opens in Bournville as part of a £17 million investment in R&D in the UK.

 Spots vs. Stripes

At the heart of our Cadbury Spots v Stripes activation is our digital hub which uses cutting edge technology to host over 207,000 registered users with over 898,000 points being claimed by consumers. We have over 275,000 Cadbury Spots and Cadbury Stripes Facebook fans and over 9,330 followers across our Twitter accounts.

We want to get the nation in the mood for London 2012 by splitting everyone into two sides Spots and Stripes, and play against each other in our big game.

It doesn’t matter what game you play. Any game counts, from hopscotch to Balloon Bellyflop and everything in between. We’re providing loads of games, challenges and events for you to play, winning prizes and points along the way. You can win points for your own games too. Points are either automatically awarded or claimed online. All points go towards your personal and side’s total scores, with Spots v Stripes scores updated in real time on our scoreboard. Ultimately the side with the most points wins. Although it’s really about rediscovering the joy of playing games!

Schweppes merger (1969)

Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969.
Cadbury Schweppes went on to acquire Sunkist, Canada Dry, Typhoo Tea and more. In the US, Schweppes Beverages was created and the manufacture of Cadbury confectionery brands was licensed to The Hershey Company.
Snapple, Mistic and Stewart's (formerly Cable Car Beverage) were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45  billion. In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.

Schweppes demerger

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business. The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Inc. In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries.

Having a lot of information about my subject matter allows me to make an informed decision about what I should include in my document, what is relevant and what is irrelevant.

After going to Cadbury World I found that everything was very creative and recognisable of Cadbury, therefore I wanted to make my publication recognisable too. I found this Mr and Mrs Chuckle Bean, and found that it would influence my design greatly, I found that it was different, fun and tasteful. The colours used are the colours that are constantly used for Cadbury products. The purple and gold work really well together, therefore I will try to include something like that in my publication.

Useful Websites; 
I use these websites to find information about Cadbury's also so that I can see how the Cabury website looks, so that I can relate my publication with the theme of the website.!/joyville-story